Viral load is outlined because the variety of virions or virus particles in a unit of milliliters of blood in an individual’s physique contaminated with that exact virus. It’s an indicator of the quantity/load of HIV virus particles within the physique of an individual contaminated with HIV and is immediately proportional to the chance of transmission of HIV to the seronegative companion throughout intercourse.
When one is detected HIV constructive, the viral load test is finished earlier than initiation of ART (Antiretroviral Remedy) after which at common intervals; could also be 6 months or yearly, post-initiation of ART. The viral load stories obtained after the initiation of ART are in contrast with the viral load report obtained earlier than the initiation of ART to examine the progress of the remedy, the efficacy of the ART medicines, and the end result in addition to to find out the chance of transmitting HIV to others.
An rising viral load could both imply that the affected person shouldn’t be compliant or adherent to the remedy or the remedy shouldn’t be as efficient as required owing to varied elements akin to drug refractoriness and thus, must be modified.
It additionally, signifies that the potential of transmitting the illness to others is optimally excessive. Alternatively, a lowering viral load is taken into account a great signal and signifies efficacious administration by way of ART. With common ART for HIV, the viral load has been discovered to scale back to a really low stage, in about 6 months.
When the viral load or the variety of HIV copies within the blood is just too low to be detected by the blood check (often thought of to be <50 viral copies/mL various from machine to machine in several laboratories), it’s known as an ‘undetectable’ viral load.
Undetectability is a machine criterion which implies that the variety of viral copies in-unit mL of the seropositive particular person is so low that the machine is unable to detect it. Thus, the restrict for undetectable viral load can fluctuate from machine to machine and might be <20 copies/mL or <30 copies/mL or <50 copies/mL of blood. This undetectable viral load denotes that the HIV virus although nonetheless current within the physique, is just too low to trigger any injury, and the person although nonetheless HIV-positive, can lead a traditional, wholesome life.
Testing at common intervals for viral load is crucial to find out if the undetectable stage is secure and fixed or not. A viral load of <1000 copies/mL of blood is taken into account to be a case of viral suppression in India and signifies a great prognosis whereas on the earth, a viral load of <100 copies/mL of blood is taken into account to be a case of viral suppression. Even when the viral load has not reached the undetectable stage of <20 copies/mL or <30 copies/mL or <50 copies/mL; a viral load of fewer than 200 copies/mL can also be, thought of a secure stage for condom-free intercourse as there is no such thing as a danger of transmission of the illness to others.
Nevertheless, utilizing a condom for each sexual act is at all times beneficial to forestall the unfold of different STIs (sexually transmitted infections) like hepatitis B, and hepatitis C which identical to HIV an infection are persistent illnesses and require medical MJ administration all through the lifetime of the contaminated particular person.
Can You Have Syphilis and HIV on the identical time?
Sure, Syphilis and HIV are each sexually transmitted illnesses that may co-exist in a person. Although Syphilis is a bacterial illness whereas HIV is a viral one, their mod..es of transmission and danger elements are related. They each unfold by way of intercourse with an contaminated particular person.
Males who’ve intercourse with males and individuals who have intercourse with a number of companions are at the next danger for this co-infection.
Contracting Syphilis predisposes one to HIV because the syphilitic sores present easy accessibility to HIV. Because the HIV virus spreads when an individual is available in contact with the physique fluids of an contaminated particular person, an open sore helps the virus enter the physique simply. Alternatively, HIV an infection can decrease one’s immunity which permits for simpler an infection with different STIs.
Having a co-infection of Syphilis and HIV collectively also can hamper the remedy as Syphilis can enhance the viral load of HIV. Additionally, lowered immunity as a result of HIV may help Syphilis progress to later phases that will trigger issues.
The excellent news is that Syphilis is curable with antibiotics like penicillin and HIV can simply be managed with fashionable anti-viral medicines additionally known as ART.
For newly detected co-infections with HIV and Syphilis, the same old method is to start out remedy with penicillin injections and comply with this up with ART (anti-retroviral remedy)
If detected early, the end result is excellent and ends in a full treatment for syphilis and undetectable viral load for HIV, in the end of time.
To forestall the co-infections like HIV + syphilis, the simplest technique is to
- To make use of condoms
- To take PrEP meds, after consulting a health care provider
- To get tested at common intervals or when required